On this page we discuss performing electropolymerization on a Zimmer and Peacock screen-printed electrodes, including a video on how to do it.
The electrochemical polymerization of polypyrolle in lithium perchlorate was performed on a Z&P Screen Printed Electrodes. The working surface was in gold and had two kinds of designs the "classic" circular and the new cutting-edge "spiral" by increasing the current density on the electrode surface.
Polypyrrole (PPy) is a type of organic polymer formed by the polymerization of pyrrole. Polypyrroles are conducting polymers, with related members being polythiophene, polyaniline, and polyacetylene. Films of PPy are yellow but darken in air due to some oxidation. Doped films are blue or black depending on the degree of polymerization and film thickness. They are amorphous, showing only weak diffraction. PPy is described as "quasi-uni-dimensional" vs one-dimensional since there is some cross-linking and chain hopping. Undoped and doped films are insoluble in solvents but are able to be swellable. Doping makes the materials brittle. They are stable in air up to 150 °C at which temperature the dopant starts to evolve (e.g., as HCl).
PPy is an insulator, but its oxidized derivatives are good electrical conductors. The conductivity of the material depends on the conditions and reagents used in the oxidation. Conductivities range from 2 to 100 S/cm. Higher conductivities are associated with larger anions, such as tosylate. Doping the polymer requires that the material swell to accommodate the charge-compensating anions. The physical changes associated with this charging and discharging has been discussed as a form of artificial muscle. The surface of polypyrrole films represent fractal properties and ionic diffusion through them show anomalous diffusion pattern.
For more details about this innovative application on Z&P sensors please consult the video on the side and our website by following the link below!
In the two videos below we are in one patterning a planar electrode and in the other we are patterning a spiral electrode.